Laboratory and research studies

MOSQUITOES? NO THANKS!

WHY SHOULD WE PROTECT AGAINST VECTORS?

“Most diseases seriously related to human fever are caused by insect-borne microorganisms.” (Encyclopedia Britannica). According to scientific estimates, one in six people is currently infected with insect-borne diseases. According to information from US health centers, from the seventeenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century, there were more cases of illness and death for this cause, than for the rest of the causes.

WHAT ARE VECTORS?

Generally speaking, many people use the term “insect” not only for six-legged insects such as flies, bedbugs, fleas or lice but also for eight-legged animals such as ticks and mites. Biologically, all these animals belong to the large group of arthropods. Vectors = animals disease carriers.

WHAT ARE VECTORS AND HOW THEY TRANSMIT DISEASES?
Transmission of a disease can occur in two ways:

1. Vectors such as flies can carry on their legs a large number of disease-causing microorganisms (typhus, dysentery, cholera, or trachoma (a common cause in the field of blindness) when they exceed a certain amount.

2. The other possibility is that vectors transmit bacteria, viruses or parasites by stinging or biting, thus transmitting the germs of an infected victim to the body of a new victim.

WHY PUT THE MAIN FOCUS ON THE MOSQUITOS?
Among all disease-transmitting insects, mosquitoes are the most dangerous. The mosquito genus Anopheles is the one that transmits malaria, which together with tuberculosis is the world’s deadliest infectious disease. In the temperate zones of Europe, ticks transmit Lyme Borreliosis. Ticks can carry several pathogens, which can be transmitted by a single bite.

WHAT MOVES THE MOSQUITO TO BITE?
Hunger, hunger, and hunger! Mosquitoes live only a few months and only the female bites. They need extra protein to mature their eggs and gain energy. The female mosquito bites until its hunger for blood is satisfied. Male mosquitoes feed on sugar, which they take from plants. At hot temperatures (25-30 ° C) a female can look for a blood ingestion every 2-4 days. If she is upset, the female bites her victim and sucks blood repeatedly, until she has ingested the necessary volume. After a good meal of blood, the female puts from 50 to several hundred eggs, depending on the species. Atmospheric humidity is vital for all mosquitoes and is decisive for their biting activity. The pattern of this activity depends on the mosquito species. It may bite from early morning to late in the day and at night.

HOW DO MOSQUITOS LOOK FOR THEIR VICTIMS?
Although there have been several studies on this subject, the mechanism of its sense of smell has not yet been fully understood. The criterion by which the female mosquito seeks the blood of its host is presently unclear. The gender, the age of the person or if you have eaten garlic, does not seem to be very important. The most important criteria are based on body heat, exhaled CO2 (carbon dioxide) along with a number of odor components such as transpiration or urine from vertebrates. Mosquitoes have a very fine sense of smell. Essentially, they have batteries of odor sensors in their antennas, at the end of the proboscis and on their legs.

WHAT TYPES OF ANTI-MOSITOES PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE?
Sound devices, lately well-advertised, are useful, but they do not work within the hearing range of all mosquitoes. Mosquito nets in many cases are not suitable for mosquitoes as they are too open. Another problem is the lack of maintenance of the net because a female mosquito almost always finds a hole to enter. Therefore, specialists recommend bed nets that have been given specific mosquito protection treatment. A considerable selection of available mosquito repellent sprays is also available. The problem with these generally consists in prevention, often inadequate and the fact that spray protection becomes ineffective after a few hours.

THE PROTECTION AGAINST MOSQUITOES IN FABRICS.

It is more convenient for consumers in the Western Hemisphere.As a spray supplement, protection can increase safety in critical regions.

  • No irritations, also suitable for allergic persons.
  • The substance is fixed in the tissue and not directly on the skin.
  • Repeat treatment is not necessary. These trademarked products offer an excellent mosquito repellent effect and effectively complement the above-mentioned protective measures.
  • Both products have been tested and approved for textile Class I textiles (baby).
  • They are biocompatible, according to the ITV Test of Cytotoxicity.

antimosquitos, antipiojos, antigarrapatas
WHAT CAUSES PROTECTION AGAINST MOSQUITOS?
The reason why some active principles work and others have not worked have not yet been definitively established by science. However, the active ingredient Permethrin applied in textiles has proved very effective. Permethrin belongs to the group of pyrethroids, which are synthetic compounds that are structurally derived from natural pyrethrins, but which offer a higher stability than these. The following statements explain the most likely causes from a scientific point of view:

  1. Molecules of the active ingredient block the pores of hairs from the moisture sensors of mosquito antennae, which prevents females in flight from detecting the victim, even after being stimulated by exhaled CO2 (carbon dioxide). In reality, therefore, the female mosquito is not repelled: the active ingredient simply prevents it from landing on the victim to search for its blood ingestion. Zoological Institute.
  2. The victim’s body odors are the most important sensory stimuli used by biting insects to locate their victims. Synthetic repellents against Aedes mosquitoes work by confounding their sensory stimuli (body odor) and not by the obstruction of the organs that detect the victim’s odor, nor the general pharmacological effects on the sensory system of the mosquitoes. Therefore, the female mosquito does not find the landing path to the protected victim and must look for another victim. Institute of Zoology.
  3. There is also 6% of people to whom this product does not offer this high percentage of protection: due to the sensorial stimuli that we offer to the vectors, either by the smell, the body temperature or the amount of CO2 exhaled when breathing. Although the repellent does not act against some vectors in this 6% of cases, in many others it does offer the indicated protection. STINGbye offers, as guaranteed by the lab results, guarantees protection effectiveness on vectors, to a high percentage of the population

antimosquitos, antipiojos, antigarrapatas

EFFECTIVE TESTING- MILITARY APPLICATIONS:
Supply specifications, use in military clothing: (Excerpt from the specification document– not the whole one, for more information request full report “Technical Specifications” documenting the supply): Both the textile fabric that has been given the treatment of protection against vectors and the garments made from it should be permanently effective against all blood-sucking arthropods (vectors).

THE PROTECTIVE EFFECT MUST REMAIN INTACT AFTER ONE HUNDRED WASHES:
LABORATORIES/MICROBIOLOGY/ANALYSIS, TESTED SUCCESSFULLY: With result: satisfactory. Protection against mosquitoes confirmed! Final conclusion: The comparison of the treated tissues with the untreated, confirms the excellent protection offered by the products

INSTITUTO TROPICAL
Objective: It contributes to the improvement of the health of the population at national and international level through research, services and education/training.
Services: Center for International Health with proper authority in tropical diseases, National Center for diagnosis and vaccination.
Teaching and research: medical parasitology, biological infection, public health and epidemiology.

TESTED AT TROPICAL INSTITUTE: REPELLENCE TEST

TESTED BY TROPICAL INSTITUTE. MOSQUITO BITES AND FOOD BLOOD:

The test was carried out as follows: the forearm of a volunteer was wrapped with the tissue to be tested; the hand was protected with a glove. The arm was then placed in a cage containing 200 mosquitoes. In a time span of 2 minutes, nine of the mosquitoes settled on the forearm. Stimulated by the warm arm and its perspiration, most of them thought to bite the stranger, but none of the females succeeded. When in another control, the forearm was wrapped with an untreated tissue instead of the tissue to be tested, using the same cage and during the same time, 40 mosquitoes settled and began to test. In this situation, four mosquitoes were successful.

The result of laboratory evaluation: Demonstrated effectiveness.

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